I recently reinstalled windows on my PC and had this same exact issue. Nothing would fix it for me.
I figured out my issue, hoping this helps someone. See below.
After installing the optional Radeon driver version, the origin launcher would not work at all. The origin logo would appear in my taskbar for half of a second at most and then disappear. I tried all the steps listed in this thread but nothing worked.
That's it! It worked fine after that.
So I told my Radeon software to not recommend any "optional" driver versions.
THANK YOU SO MUCH Dis. Even years later this is apparently still an issue. Have a brand new clean install of Windows 10 and the download on Origin.com doesn't work. smdh.