Interesting History Behind BF1 Weapon Skin Names?

by HUN_gattaca_lg

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Re: Interesting History Behind BF1 Weapon Skin Names?

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I couldn't find any references

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Re: Interesting History Behind BF1 Weapon Skin Names?

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I think it is possible that there is some connection between Auby-les-Hesdin and Auchy-lès-Hesdin (maybe the two are the same?)
I found an article in Chinese about General Liu Rifle skins:


General Liu Rifle skins:
Legendary: Auby-les-Hesdin, Noyelles-sur-Mer, The Yang
Distinguished: Hanyang Arsenal, Kulja


Hanyang Arsenal skin for General Liu Rifle The General Liu Rifle is another of the obscure, experimental weapons of the WW1 era, whose history is not entirely clear. General Liu was a Chinese officer and weapons designer who was appointed head of the Hangyang Arsenal, where he began developing a self-loading rifle in 1913, based on the Danish Bang muzzle gas-trap system. Prototypes of the Liu rifle were built at the Hangyang Arsenal and were tested successfully, but China lacked the means to mass-produce the weapon. Instead General Liu came to USA a few years later and contracted an American company to produce the machinery necessary for mass-production, and Liu also brought some of the prototypes for testing in USA. Hanyang Arsenal (traditional Chinese: 漢陽兵工廠; simplified Chinese: 汉阳兵工厂; pinyin: Hànyáng Bīnggōngchǎng) was one of the largest and oldest modern arsenals in Chinese history. Originally known as the Hubei Arsenal, it was founded in 1891 by Qing official Zhang Zhidong, who diverted funds from the Nanyang Fleet in Guangdong to build the arsenal. It cost about 250,000 pounds sterling and was built in 4 years. On 23 April 1894, construction was completed and the arsenal, occupying some 40 acres (160,000 m2), could start production of small-caliber cannons. It built magazine-fed rifles, Gruson quick fire guns, and cartridges. The Republic of China expanded the arsenal numerous times, and production soared. Quality, however, remained low. In 1917, a training school was established alongside the arsenal. In 1921, production began on copies of the Browning M1917 and the Mauser M1932 "Broomhandle" pistol. In 1930, the design of the Type 88 was once again modified, extending the bayonet. In 1935, a version of the Maxim gun—the Type 24 HMG—was being produced, based on blueprints from the German M08.


Noyelles-sur-Mer skin for General Liu Rifle ( Noyelles-sur-Mer (literally Noyelles on Sea) is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. Noyelles-sur-Mer is situated on the coast, facing the English Channel, on the D11 and D40 junction, some 13 kilometres (8 mi) northwest of Abbeville. The Chinese Labour Corps (CLC; French: Corps de Travailleurs Chinois; simplified Chinese: 中国劳工旅; traditional Chinese: 中國勞工旅; pinyin: Zhōngguó láogōng lǚ) was a force of workers recruited by the British government in the First World War to free troops for front line duty by performing support work and manual labour. The French government also recruited a significant number of Chinese labourers, and although those labourers working for the French were recruited separately and not part of the CLC, the term is often used to encompass both groups. In all, some 140,000 men served for both British and French forces before the war ended and most of the men were repatriated to China between 1918 and 1920. The CLC did not directly perform in combat. According to the records kept by the British and French recruiters, around 2,000 men of the CLC died during the war, many from the 1918 flu pandemic, with some Chinese scholars estimating the total could be as high as 20,000, victims of shelling, landmines, poor treatment, or the disease. The members of the CLC who died were classified as war casualties and were buried in about 40 graveyards in the north of France and one in Belgium, with a total of about 2,000 recorded graves. The largest number of graves are at Noyelles-sur-Mer on the Somme, next to the workers' camp of the British army, where a cholera outbreak and some of the fiercest battles occurred, as well. The cemetery contains 842 gravestones, each engraved with Chinese characters, guarded by two stone lions, gifts from China.


Auby-les-Hesdin skin for General Liu Rifle According to Shirley Frey of the University of Texas at Arlington, the British and French military began deploying CLC members to different tasks upon realizing the range of skills and talents at their disposal. Although the less educated were given tough manual work—deployed to man the docks, dig trenches, lay railroad tracks, and unload supplies and munitions—the skilled were deployed to maintain and repair machines, ammunition, vehicles, and even tanks and aircraft parts. Those who had learned to speak and write English or French from European missionaries played important intermediary roles between the officers and the CLC members under their command. “The Big Tank Corps depot at Auby-les-Hesdin was serviced almost exclusively by Chinese,” Frey noted in her 2009 history master’s thesis. She also found that the CLC force almost exclusively maintained important railroad lines between Calais, Zeneghem, Dieppe, Boulogne, Audruicq, Dannes, Abbeville, Saigneville, Abancourt, and Soquence. Britain and China, 1840-1970: Empire, Finance and War by Robert Bickers and Jonathan J. Howlett (2015): A striking example of how Chinese workers (many of whom were of peasant origin) acquired technical skills while in France was their servicing and maintenance of tanks (for example, at the Tank Corps depot in Auby-les-Hesdin in northern France). In a 1919 report to the War Office, a British CLC officier remembered that, while on a visit to a tank workshop, he had seen several Chinese workers test drive a tank. During November 1917 preparations for the Battle of Cambrai were well underway. Each battalion of the Tank Corps recorded day to day events in their War Diary. This series of posts reproduce a selection of entries from this month, giving us an idea of how tank crewmen prepared for their greatest challenge yet. 1st November 1917 and F Battalion: Auchy-lès-Hesdin. Work was continued on the tanks, sprockets etc being changed where necessary & they were thoroughly overhauled ready for training exercises with infantry in the near future. Any men available were bathed at BLANGY.


Kulja skin for General Liu Rifle ( Yining (Chinese: 伊宁), also known as Ghulja (Uyghur: غۇلجا), Kulja or Qulja (Kazakh: قۇلجا), is a county-level city in northwestern Xinjiang, China, and the seat of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. In the 19th and early 20th century, the word Kuldja or Ghulja was often used in Russia and in the West as the name for the entire Chinese part of the Ili River basin as well as for its two main cities. The usage of 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica is fairly characteristic; it defines Kulja as a "territory in north-west China" bounded by the Russian border and the mountains that surround the Ili basin. It also talks about two major cities of the region. The Sino-Russian Treaty of Kulja 1851 opened the area for trade. The Treaty of Kulja (also spelled Kuldja) (Chinese: 中俄伊犁塔爾巴哈臺通商章程) was an unequal treaty between Qing China and the Russian Empire, signed in 1851, opening Kulja (Huiyuan and later Ningyuan) and Chuguchak to Sino-Russian trade. Prepared by the first Russian consul to China, Ivan Zakharov, the treaty was preceded by a gradual Russian advance throughout the nineteenth century into Kazakhstan in direct competition with British efforts to impose self-advantageous trade terms on China. While the treaty primarily legalized ongoing practice, it also recognized the growing Russian presence in Central Asia. China's defenses on this border had been greatly neglected since the start of the 19th century. Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture in northern Xinjiang, China. Its capital is Yining, also known as Ghulja or Kulja. Modern history: The Xinhai Revolution broke out on 10 October 1911. On 12 February 1912, the Provisional Government of the Republic of China was established in Beijing, and on 15 March, it ordered the Xinjiang Grand Coordinator, Yuan Dahua (袁大化), to end Qing rule in Xinjiang. On 25 April, Yuan Dahua was forced to resign as Grand Coordinator of Xinjiang. On 18 May, Yang Zengxin (楊增新, reference to the General Liu Rifle's The Yang skin?) was recommended for the position of Military Governor of Xinjiang.


The Yang skin for General Liu Rifle ( Yang (simplified Chinese: 杨; traditional Chinese: 楊; pinyin: Yáng) is the transcription of a Chinese family name. It is the sixth most common surname in Mainland China. It is the 16th surname on the Hundred Family Surnames text. The Beiyang Army (Chinese: 北洋军; pinyin: Běi Yáng Jūn; lit. 'Northern Ocean Army'), named after the Beiyang region, was a large, Western-style Imperial Chinese Army established by the Qing dynasty government in the late 19th century. It was the centerpiece of a general reconstruction of Qing China's military system. The Beiyang Army played a major role in Chinese politics for at least three decades and arguably right up to 1949. It made the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 possible, and, by dividing into warlord factions known as the Beiyang Clique (Chinese: 北洋军阀; pinyin: Běiyáng Jūnfá), ushered in a period of regional division. The Beiyang government (Chinese: 北洋政府; pinyin: Běiyáng Zhèngfǔ; Wade–Giles: Pei-yang Chêng-fu), officially the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá mínguó; Wade–Giles: Chung¹-hua² Min²-kuo²), sometimes spelled Peiyang Government, or just China, was the government of the Republic of China which sat in its capital Beijing between 1912 and 1928. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate Chinese government during that time. The Beiyang government declared war on the Central Powers in August 1917 and began sending labor battalions to France and a token force to Siberia. In his book Yang's War, author Clive Harvey takes a closer look at the resilience of the Chinese people – and why so many of them sacrificed their lives for the Allied forces in the early 20th century. As the greatest human conflict in the history of war dragged on, the intended separation of labour from combatant troops became ever blurred. The onset of Spanish Flu took its own toll on all participants, as did German firepower. With the front line ever-depleting, skilled Allied troops were redeployed to close-quarter combat. With the new tank depots left wanting, it swiftly became apparent there were many skilled men amongst the CLC recruits, not least the protagonist of my book. Yang, as an interpreter who was near-fluent in English, poignantly represents the archetypal “saviour” for the suddenly under-manned British tank and munitions units. Urgently needing both mechanical skills and a fluent foreign tongue, such resourceful Chinese recruits as Yang soon came to run these depots.




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Thanks gattaca, god work

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Hellriegel 1915 skins
Legendary: The Archduke, Die Tiroler Bracke, The Schreckenstein
Distinguished: Eidenberger, Monte Piano, Snail, Tyrol


Snail skin for Hellriegel 1915 Originating from Austria-Hungary and even though the term submachine gun had not yet been coined in 1915 this beast was belt-fed from a German snail magazine, firing 9mm rounds and had a water cooling jacket. Archives indicate that this weapon was named after someone called Hellriegel. Hellriegel's submachine gun could be fed from a drum magazine with a capacity of approximately 100-160 rounds. The magazine was not actually connected to the gun itself as the cartridges travelled through a flexible chute. The unusual appearance of the magazine has led many people to assume that the gun was belt-fed, however, this is not the case with the rounds being unconnected from one another and are propelled along the drum and feed chute by a spring. The design is very similar to the German TM 08 snail magazine, which was used in the Luger P08 pistol and MP-18 submachine gun. Apparently the gun could also use a box magazine with a capacity of around 20-30 rounds, which looks very similar to the box magazine of a Thompson submachine gun.


Tyrol skin for Hellriegel 1915 ( Little is known about the Standschütze Hellriegel Model 1915. The only source of information about the Hellriegel is several photographs stored in the photo archive of the Austrian National Library under the name “Maschinengewehr des Standschützen Hellriegel” (literally "Machine gun from reservist Hellriegel"). The photographs are dated October 1915 and they show the weapon being tested at a firing range. Its name and magazine size indicate that it was an automatic firearm, and its designer was someone named Hellriegel from the Austrian militia unit Standschützen (reference to the Maschinenpistole M1912/P.16's Standschützen skin), tasked with the defence of Tyrol and Vorarlberg regions of western Austria, the former bordered "neutral" Italy. It was most likely a prototype and therefore explains its "unfinished" look and design. The development of this weapon coincided with the Italian entry into World War I on the side of the Entente, and its subsequent declaration of war on Austria-Hungary - its former ally in the Triple Alliance - which forced the Austro-Hungarian Empire to wage war on three fronts. It may be the case that only one prototype was ever built. Additionally, there have of yet been no records or documentation relating to this weapon. Because of this, the details of the trials that are depicted in the photographs are unknown; in any case, it seems clear that the design was not successful, and there was no interest in taking it into service. The photos that were taken during the tests were later sent to the K.u.K. Press Office in 1918; it is recorded that they were taken in Tyrol.


Monte Piano skin for Hellriegel 1915 ( Monte Piana is a 2,324-metre (7,625 ft) tall mountain in the Sexten Dolomites and located on the border between the provinces of South Tyrol (reference to the Hellriegel 1915's Tyrol skin) and Belluno. The smaller Northern summit of the mountain is named Monte Piano (2,305m). During the so-called "White War" in World War I the mountain was hotly contested between the Austrian and Italian Armies. The Austrians had occupied the Northern summit Monte Piano, while the Southern summit Monte Piana was in Italian hands. Today many remnants of the fierce fighting can still be found on both summits. When Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on 24 May 1915, seven / eight battalions of the thirty-five stationed between San Candido and the Stelvio were sent to Monte Piana and its valleys. On 24 May the Piana was occupied by two platoons of Alpine troops of the 96th company, Pieve di Cadore battalion, of the 7th regiment. Other Alpini of the 67th company around 08:30 were hit by an artillery shell fired from Monte Rudo while they were working on the road from Misurina to Monte Piana; they were the first Italians to fall on a mountain that in less than two years made about 14,000 victims from both sides. Here, on 7 June 1915, second lieutenant Antonio De Toni (7th regiment, 268th company, batt. Val Piave) was fatally wounded, the first to be killed in the Padua university community. At the end of the day, the two years of war on Mount Piana essentially led to nothing; the two contenders fought for two long years on a patch of land, without ever being able to subvert the enemy forces, and on 3 November 1917 the positions on the plain were abandoned by the Italian units to retreat and take sides on the Grappa line in an attempt to resist the Austro-Hungarian offensive in Caporetto (reference to the Frommer Stop Pistol's Caporetto skin).



The Schreckenstein skin for Hellriegel 1915 ( Falzarego Pass. The Italians decided to focus on dislodging the Austrians from various high points around the eastern entrance to the Pass, particularly the rocky outcrop called the Casteletto on the Tofana di Rozes. The fighting to secure thus became so intense that the Austrians called it the “Schreckenstein” – “The rock of horror. Unable to push the Austro-Hungarians off the Casteletto, in 1916 the Italians decided to dig a 500m gallery from their positions to the foot of the outcrop and use 35 tons of gelignite to destroy it. The Austro-Hungarians responded by countermining but the Italians were so confident of success that General Cadorna and King Victor Emmanuel were invited to observe the detonation of the mine followed by the rapid assault by Italian troops held ready in another tunnel to swarm out after the explosion. The attack on 11 July was only partially successful. Many Italian soldiers were killed by carbon monoxide from the explosion as they rushed downhill, while others were killed by falling rocks. They managed to take the south side of the Casteletto but did not manage to drive the Austrians off completely for another three months. The most sensational event of the whole war occurred on a stunning rocky tower considered particularly strategic, leaning against the majestic SW wall of the Tofana di Rozes, at the cross between Val Travenanzes and Val Costeana. This peak was called Castelletto (Little Castle) by the Italians, “Schreckenstein” (literally "Rock of Terror") by the Austrians. The Austrian sentinels placed on the mountain prevented the Italian army entering Val Travenenzes; Italians tried in various ways to storm Castelletto through several attempts, whether by daring climbing from below or descending from the summit of Tofana di Rozes. Failing in order the Italians thought to blow it up, building a 507 meters long tunnel. On July 11, 1916 a terrific explosion tore off the top of Castelletto. The rocks were thrown away at thousands of meters, continuing to fall for several hours. The summit was occupied by the Italians two days later.


The Archduke skin for Hellriegel 1915 ( Archduke Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria of Austria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was the heir presumptive to the throne of Austria-Hungary. His assassination in Sarajevo was the most immediate cause of World War I. Franz Ferdinand was the eldest son of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria, the younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria (reference to Frommer Stop Pistol's The Emperor skin). Following the death of Crown Prince Rudolf in 1889 and the death of Karl Ludwig in 1896, Franz Ferdinand became the heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. Franz Ferdinand held significant influence over the military, and in 1913 he was appointed inspector general of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces. On 28 June 1914, Franz Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated in Sarajevo by the 19-year-old Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young Bosnia. Franz Ferdinand's assassination led to the July Crisis and precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia, which in turn triggered a series of events that eventually led – four weeks after his death – to Austria-Hungary's allies and Serbia's allies declaring war on each other, starting World War I. His authority was reinforced in 1907 when he secured the retirement of the Emperor's confidant Friedrich von Beck-Rzikowsky as Chief of the General Staff. Beck's successor, Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf (reference to the Repetierpistole M1912's Hötzendorf skin), was personally selected by Franz Ferdinand. He advocated granting greater autonomy to ethnic groups within the Empire and addressing their grievances, especially the Czechs in Bohemia and the south Slavic peoples in Croatia and Bosnia, who had been left out of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. Yet his feelings towards the Hungarians were less generous, often described as antipathy. He regarded Hungarian nationalism as a revolutionary threat to the Habsburg dynasty (reference to Repetierpistole M1912's The Habsburg skin) and reportedly became angry when officers of the 9th Hussars Regiment (which he commanded) spoke Hungarian in his presence – despite the fact that it was the official regimental language. He further regarded the Hungarian branch of the Dual Monarchy's army, the Honvédség, as an unreliable and potentially threatening force within the empire, complaining at the Hungarians' failure to provide funds for the joint army and opposing the formation of artillery units within the Hungarian forces.


Eidenberger skin for Hellriegel 1915 Josef Eidenberger (* 30. Mai 1899 in Goisern, Oberösterreich; † 21. Juli 1991 in Niederwaldkirchen) war ein österreichischer Maler. Nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg wandte er sich zunächst der Landschaftsmalerei zu. Im Jahre 1923 trat er in die Graphische Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt in Wien ein und erlernte bei Alfred Cossmann die Techniken des Kupferstiches und der Radierung. Danach beschäftigte er sich mit der Farbradierung, deren Technik er ständig verfeinerte und verbesserte. Seine Motive erwecken den Eindruck handgemalter Arbeiten und entstanden in seinem Atelier bzw. in seiner Druckerei. Neben vielen Motiven aus seiner engeren Heimat entstanden zahlreiche Städteansichten aus aller Welt. Die internationale Anerkennung seiner Arbeiten kam mit den vielen Aufträgen aus den Vereinigten Staaten. Josef Eidenberger (1899-1991) was an Austrian born engraver, etcher, painter and printmaker. Josef Eidenberger (1899-1991) was born in the small town of Bad Goisern, Austria. In 1902 the family moved to Vienna. He obtained his secondary education at the Neue Weiner Handelsakademie (New Vienna Commercial Academy, now incorporated into the Vienna Business School). Eidenberger was 20 when World War I ended. It was then, as a promising painter of landscapes that he began his career as an artist. In 1923, he enrolled in the famed Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien (Vienna Graphic Academy of Art) and studied under Alfred Cossmann. Starting with copper engraving, Eidenberger soon turned to etching on copper as his medium. His specialized studies and love for subtle color led him to the complicated process of multi-plate color etching. Eidenberger loved the natural colors and shapes of landscapes, especially the alpine scenery of his native Austria. These two subjects, city and village architecture, and landscapes, comprised the majority of his professional works. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, in oil paintings and etchings, he captured the essence of classic alpine landscapes and city architecture in numerous European countries. Medieval buildings and districts were a frequent subject of his work.



Die Tiroler Bracke skin for Hellriegel 1915 ( The Tyrolean Hound is a breed of dog that originated in Tyrol (reference to the Hellriegel 1915's Tyrol skin) also called the Tiroler Bracke or Tyroler Bracke. They are scent hounds that descended from the Celtic hounds in the late 1800s, mainly for their hunting skills. They are hardworking, passionate, and independent dogs not known for their size, but rather their intelligence. For that reason, hunters can regularly use these dogs to catch their prey, wounded or otherwise. The Tyrolean Hound, also known as the Tyroler Bracke, is a breed of scent hound originally developed in the 1800s from the Bracke hounds and the Celtic hounds. It was first bred in Tyrol as a dog adapted to hunting in the snow. Emperor Maximilian I used this hound for hunting hare and fox and for tracking wounded game. Breeding began in 1860, and then in 1896 the first standard of breeding was published. Followed shortly thereafter, the Tyrolean Hound was recognized as their own breed in 1908. It was not until 2006, that the Tyrolean Hound was recognized by the United Kennel Club. As with dogs that come from hardworking scent hound breeds, the Tyrolean hound was bred for their hunting ability. The breed is known for their excellent ability in being able to maneuver through mountainous or heavily wooded areas, and for their amazing scenting skills.

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Martini-Henry skins
Legendary: The Bloodhound, The Flaming Bullet, The Massoko
Distinguished: Glasgow, Kilimanjaro, Sari Bair Ridge, Zulu


Zulu skin for Martini-Henry ( During the Martini–Henry's service life the British Army was involved in a large number of colonial wars, most notably the Anglo-Zulu War in 1879. The rifle was used in the Battle of Isandlwana, and by the company of the 2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot at the battle of Rorke's Drift, where 139 British soldiers successfully defended themselves against several thousand Zulus. The weapon was not completely phased out until 1904. The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Following the passing of the British North America Act of 1867 forming a federation in Canada, Lord Carnarvon thought that a similar political effort, coupled with military campaigns, might succeed with the African Kingdoms, tribal areas and Boer republics in South Africa. In 1874, Sir Bartle Frere was sent to South Africa as High Commissioner for the British Empire to effect such plans. Among the obstacles were the armed independent states of the South African Republic and the Kingdom of Zululand. Frere, on his own initiative, sent a provocative ultimatum on 11 December 1878 to the Zulu king Cetshwayo and upon its rejection sent Lord Chelmsford to invade Zululand. The war is notable for several particularly bloody battles, including an opening victory of the Zulu at the Battle of Isandlwana, followed by the defence of Rorke's Drift by a small British force from attack by a large Zulu force. The British eventually won the war, ending Zulu dominance of the region. Film adaptations:
-Zulu (1964), the Battle at Rorke's Drift. -Zulu Dawn (1979), the Battle of Isandlwana.


Glasgow skin for Martini-Henry ( After Alex Henry died, in 1894, the company started, like many others, to use generic Birmingham actions for many of its guns and rifles. While some fine rifles continued to be made in the twentieth century, Alex Henry’s heyday ended with the death of the founder. In 1902 the company was taken over by Alexander Martin of Glasgow. The Glasgow firm, which eventually too over Alex Henry, was founded in 1778 making various metal components, including gun parts and cutlery, it was not until 1835 the firm became ‘gun-makers’. By the 1850s Martin was making rifles and casting rifle barrels. With shops in Glasgow, Aberdeen and Bisley, The third generation of Alex Martin gained a reputation as a rifle maker in the late 19th and early 20th century, especially target rifles based on the common Lee-Metford and Lee-Enfield military actions, as well as making breech loading rifles in .256 calibre. They also made and sold target rifle sights.


The Flaming Bullet skin for Martini-Henry ( The Martini–Henry saw service in World War I in a variety of roles, primarily as a Reserve Arm, but it was also issued (in the early stages of the war) to aircrew for attacking observation balloons with newly developed incendiary ammunition, and aircraft. Martini–Henrys were also used in the African and Middle Eastern theatres during World War I, in the hands of Native Auxiliary troops. Anti-airship cartridges. Prior to World War I, to combat the threat of Zeppelins it was determined that machine guns firing explosive or incendiary rounds were required to ignite the airship's gas. The bullet of the .303 British was too small to carry enough incendiary composition for the intended purpose, so the .577/450 round was adapted to the purpose and in 1914 the Cartridge S.A. Tracer Martini Henry Rifle and Machine Gun Mark I was introduced. This round used reclaimed drawn brass cases from rifle cartridges, firing a 270 gr (17 g) bullet made of a brass outer envelope containing 50 gr (3.2 g) of incendiary mix (20 parts potassium perchlorate and 7 parts aluminium) and 20 gr (1.3 g) of igniting mixture towards the tip. The cartridge was propelled by 47 gr (3.0 g) of cordite size 3 at a muzzle velocity of 2,150 ft/s (660 m/s). Royal Laboratory Incendiary Mark I, 1914. Also referred to as "RL Flaming bullet". Used in Martini carbines for early air war against Zeppelins.


Sari Bair Ridge skin for Martini-Henry ( The Battle of Sari Bair (Turkish: Sarı Bayır Harekâtı), also known as the August Offensive (Ağustos Taarruzları), represented the final attempt made by the British in August 1915 to seize control of the Gallipoli peninsula from the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. At the time of the battle, the Gallipoli Campaign had raged on two fronts – Anzac and Helles – for three months since the Allied land invasion of 25 April 1915. With the Anzac front locked in a tense stalemate, the Allies had attempted to carry the offensive on the Helles battlefield – at enormous cost and for little gain. In August, the British command proposed a new operation to reinvigorate the campaign by capturing the Sari Bair ridge, the high ground that dominated the middle of the Gallipoli peninsula above the Anzac landing. The main operation started on 6 August with a fresh landing 5 miles (8.0 km) north of Anzac at Suvla Bay in conjunction with the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. The Allies mounted an attack north into the rugged country alongside the Sari Bair range with the aim of capturing the high ground and linking with the Suvla landing. At Helles, the British and French were now to remain largely on the defensive. Once the battles of 21 August had finished, the front lines at Suvla and Anzac remained static for the remainder of the campaign. Localised fighting continued but no more major advances were attempted. Many soldiers suffered or perished due to the hostile conditions they endured as a result of their poor preparation and training. Disease transmitted by mosquitoes and the lack of fresh water and shelter hampered the efforts of the division as the men were too weak to fight to their best ability.


The Massoko skin for Martini-Henry ( Schutztruppe (lit. Protection Force) was the official name of the colonial troops in the African territories of the German colonial empire from the late 19th century to 1918. Similar to other colonial armies, the Schutztruppen consisted of volunteer European commissioned and non-commissioned officers, medical and veterinary officers. Most enlisted ranks were recruited from indigenous communities within the German colonies or from elsewhere in Africa. Military contingents were formed in German East Africa, where they became famous as Askari, in the Kamerun colony of German West Africa, and in German South West Africa. German East Africa: At the outbreak of the First World War, the Schutztruppe in German East Africa was organised into 14 field companies (Feldkompanien) with 2,500 men under arms, with headquarters at the capital Dar es Salaam. Including carriers and labourers, the force had about 14,000 personnel. On 13 April 1914, Lieutenant Colonel Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck assumed command in German East Africa. He led his units throughout the First World War, eventually being promoted to Generalmajor. The Schutztruppe in East Africa became the last German formation to surrender – days after the armistice in November 1918. A pre-war company consisted of 160 (expandable to 200) men in three platoons (Züge) of 50 to 60 men each, including two machine-gun teams. Each of the 14 companies also had a minimum 250 man carrier contingent as well as native irregulars known as Ruga-Ruga, called Fita-Fita in German Samoa, of approximately the same size units. 5th Company: Massoko. Garnison-umgebungs-Karte von Massoko. Environmental map of the area surrounding the German garrison in the Masoko and Kilwa regions of German East Africa. The map shows the permanent military base, towns, mission stations, passable roads, footpaths, banana groves cultivated by the African people, banana groves in the grounds of the leprosy hospital, protected forest areas, the north western shoreline of Lake Nyasa, other lakes and dams, flowing and dry-bed rivers, hills and mountains.


Kilimanjaro skin for Martini-Henry ( Mount Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano located in Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. It has three volcanic cones: Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira. It is the highest mountain in Africa and the highest single free-standing mountain above sea level in the world: 5,895 m (19,341 ft) above sea level and about 4,900 m (16,100 ft) above its plateau base. It is the highest volcano in Africa and the Eastern Hemisphere. In the 1880s, the mountain became a part of German East Africa and was called Kilima-Ndscharo in German following the Kiswahili name components. On 6 October 1889, Hans Meyer reached the highest summit on the crater ridge of Kibo. He named it Kaiser-Wilhelm-Spitze (Kaiser Wilhelm peak, reference to Gewehr 98's The Kaiser skin). That name was used until Tanzania was formed in 1964, when the summit was renamed Uhuru Peak, meaning freedom peak in Kiswahili. In June 1887, the Hungarian Count Sámuel Teleki and the Austrian Lieutenant Ludwig von Höhnel made an attempt to climb the mountain. Approaching from the saddle between Mawenzi and Kibo, Höhnel stopped at 4,950 m (16,240 ft), but Teleki continued until he reached the snow at 5,300 m (17,400 ft). Later in 1887, the German geology professor Hans Meyer reached the lower edge of the ice cap on Kibo, where he was forced to turn back because he lacked the equipment needed to progress across the ice. The Battle of Kilimanjaro at Longido took place in German East Africa in November 1914 and was an early skirmish during the East African Campaign of the First World War. The British conquest of German East Africa was planned as a two-pronged invasion of the German colony, at the port town of Tanga and the settlement Longido on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro. The plan was designed at a Mombasa staff conference with Major General Arthur Aitken in overall command.


The Bloodhound skin for Martini-Henry ( The bloodhound is a large scent hound, originally bred for hunting deer, wild boar and, since the Middle Ages, for tracking people. Believed to be descended from hounds once kept at the Abbey of Saint-Hubert, Belgium, in French it is called, le chien de Saint-Hubert. This breed is famed for its ability to discern human scent over great distances, even days later. Its extraordinarily keen sense of smell is combined with a strong and tenacious tracking instinct, producing the ideal scent hound, and it is used by police and law enforcement all over the world to track escaped prisoners, missing people, and lost pets. References to Bloodhounds first appear in English writing in the early to mid-14th century, in contexts that suggest the breed was well established by then. It also seems that from the earliest times the Bloodhound was used to track people. There are stories written in medieval Scotland of Robert the Bruce (in 1307), and William Wallace (1270–1305) being followed by 'sleuth hounds'. When the first Bloodhounds were exported to the US is not known. Bloodhounds were used to track runaway slaves before the American Civil War, but it has been questioned whether the dogs used were genuine Bloodhounds. In Britain, there have been instances from time to time of the successful use of the Bloodhound to track criminals or missing people. However, man-trailing is enjoyed as a sport by British Bloodhound owners, through national working trials, and this enthusiasm has spread to Europe. In addition, while the pure Bloodhound is used to hunt singly, Bloodhound packs use Bloodhounds crossed with foxhounds to hunt the human scent.

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Selbstlader 1906 skins
Legendary: Das Jagdschloss Rominten, The Hound of Mons, The Kaiserin
Distinguished: Charleroi, Die Walkure, Falkenhayn, Waitzrik


Das Jagdschloss Rominten skin for Selbstlader 1906 ( Das Jagdschloss Rominten war das Jagdhaus von Kaiser Wilhelm II. in der Rominter Heide. The Rominten Hunting Lodge (German: Jagdschloss Rominten) was the residence of Kaiser Wilhelm II (reference to Gewehr 98's The Kaiser skin) in the Rominter Heath in East Prussia. A small Norwegian Stave Church-style chapel dedicated to Saint Hubertus (the patron saint of hunting) was built in 1893, and Theerbude was renamed "Kaiserlich Rominten" (Imperial Rominten) on 13 September 1897. Over the following years, a youth hostel and an orphanage were built, and the village became a popular tourist resort. An "Empress-wing" (reference to Selbstlader 1906's The Kaiserin skin) was added to the lodge in 1904. Wilheim II spent several weeks each fall at Rominten and at his other retreats in Prökelwitz and Hubertusstock. Rominten had the distinction of being the place where he and his ministers made the most important decisions regarding improvements to the navy and ship-building. Government ministers would travel out to the lodge from Berlin. Most of Wilhelm's time at Rominten, however, was spent hunting. He and his entourage would rise at 5:00 each morning and be driven out to the forest. Standing on special platforms, they would wait for herders to drive deer and elk toward their positions. From 22 September to 2 October 1913, Wilhelm II visited the lodge for the last time. In his 23 years of hunting on the Rominter Heath, he had brought down 327 deer. After World War I, the Lodge remained the private property of Wilhelm II, although the exiled Kaiser would never return to Rominten.


The Kaiserin skin for Selbstlader 1906 ( Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein (Auguste Viktoria Friederike Luise Feodora Jenny; 22 October 1858 – 11 April 1921) was the last German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to Wilhelm II (reference to Gewehr 98's The Kaiser skin), German Emperor. SMS Kaiserin was the third vessel of the Kaiser class of dreadnought battleships of the Imperial German Navy. Kaiserin's keel was laid in November 1910 at the Howaldtswerke dockyard in Kiel. She was launched on 11 November 1911 and was commissioned into the fleet on 14 May 1913. Along with her four sister ships, Kaiser, Friedrich der Grosse, König Albert, and Prinzregent Luitpold, Kaiserin participated in all of the major fleet operations of World War I, including the Battle of Jutland (reference to the Battle of Jutland skins) on 31 May and 1 June 1916. The ship was also involved in Operation Albion, an amphibious assault on the Russian-held islands in the Gulf of Riga, in October 1917. She later saw action during the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in November 1917. After Germany's defeat in the war and the signing of the Armistice in November 1918, the Royal Navy interned Kaiserin and most of the capital ships of the High Seas Fleet in Scapa Flow. The ships were disarmed and reduced to skeleton crews while the Allied powers negotiated the final version of the Treaty of Versailles. On 21 June 1919, the commander of the interned fleet, Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter, ordered the fleet to be scuttled to ensure that the British would not be able to seize the ships.


Falkenhayn skin for Selbstlader 1906 ( General Erich Georg Sebastian Anton von Falkenhayn (11 September 1861 – 8 April 1922) was the second Chief of the German General Staff of the First World War from September 1914 until 29 August 1916. He was removed on 29 August 1916 after the failure at the Battle of Verdun (reference to the M1909 Benét-Mercié Verdun skin), the opening of the Battle of the Somme (reference to the Auto revolver's Somme skin), the Brusilov Offensive (reference to the Model 8 Autoloading's Brusilov skin) and the entry of Romania into the war on the Allied side undid his strategy to end the war before 1917. He was later given important field commands in Romania and Syria. His reputation as a war leader was attacked in Germany during and after the war, especially by the faction supporting Paul von Hindenburg. Falkenhayn held that Germany could not win the war by a decisive battle but would have to reach a compromise peace; his enemies said he lacked the resolve necessary to win a decisive victory. Falkenhayn's relations with the Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg (reference to Selbstlader M1916's The Chancellor skin) were troubled and undercut Falkenhayn's plans. Winston Churchill (reference to the C96 Pistol's Churchill skin) considered him to be the ablest of the German generals in World War I. Trevor Dupuy also ranked him near the top of the German commanders, just below Hindenburg and Ludendorff (reference to the C96 Pistol's Ludendorff skin).



Charleroi skin for Selbstlader 1906 ( The Battle of Charleroi (French: Bataille de Charleroi) or the Battle of the Sambre, was fought on 21 August 1914, by the French Fifth Army and the German 2nd and 3rd armies, during the Battle of the Frontiers. The French were planning an attack across the Sambre River, when the Germans attacked first, forced back the French from the river and nearly cut off the French retreat by crossing the Meuse River (reference to the M1897 Shotgun's Meuse skin) around Dinant and getting behind the French right flank. The French were saved by a counter-attack at Dinant and the re-direction of the 3rd Army to the north-west in support of the 2nd Army, rather than south-west. By 20 August, the Fifth Army (General Charles Lanrezac) had begun to concentrate on a 40 km (25 mi) front along the Sambre, centred on Charleroi and extending east to the Belgian fortress of Namur. The Cavalry Corps (General André Sordet) covered the Fifth Army's left flank and the concentration of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) at Mons (reference to Selbstlader 1906's The Hound of Mons skin). The French had 15 divisions, after transfers of troops to Lorraine, facing 18 German divisions from the 2nd Army (General Karl von Bülow) and 3rd Army (Colonel-General Max von Hausen, reference to the Gewehr 98's von Hausen skin) moving south-west from Luxembourg towards the Meuse. On the morning of the 21st, the French Commander-in-Chief, the head of Grand Quartier Général (GQG), Joseph Joffre (reference to the RSC 1917's Papa Joffre skin), communicated to Lanrezac and to the BEF that German troops were moving west. Fighting continued on 23 August when the French centre around Charleroi began to fall back. The German army was victorious.


The Hound of Mons skin for Selbstlader 1906 ( Angel of Mons: During the first monumental turn of the WW1, heavily outnumbered British troops set out to corner German soldiers at the Battle of Mons during 22-23 August 1914. A tedious fight followed. Although the Germans were thrown back, British soldiers sustained fatal wounds. In this difficult turn of events, everyone was looking for a ray of hope – a miracle. On 24th April 1915, the British Spiritualist magazine produced a column detailing the strange events that took place during the Battle of Mons, when several angels descended from the heavens, bows in their hands, to defend the British army. However, there was another tale, much more fearsome and sinister, that had developed in this little town. Hound of Mons Battlefield Mauling British Soldiers: A fascinating chronicle was published in 1919 by Canadian veteran F. J. Newhouse, describing the story of the gigantic otherworldly hound that mauled over British soldiers in No Man’s Land. The publishing claimed that this hound wasn’t your typical Hellhound or phantom, but the intentional creation of a horrific German experiment. The days of nightmare began on November 14, 1914, when Captain Yeskes and four associates from the London Fusiliers went to patrol the No Man’s Land. They never returned. After many days their cadavers were recovered, with teeth marks on their throats. Nights later a petrifying howl was heard from the darkness. For now, the Hound of Mons has to just take its position amongst the many myths and fictions of old battlefields.


Waitzrik skin for Selbstlader 1906 ( Review of "Military Encounters with Extraterrestrials" by Frank Joseph. The book under consideration today is Military Encounters with Extraterrestrials: The Real War of the Worlds, due out later this year. As for the book itself, it is a compendium of hearsay torn from the pages of tabloids. To give but one example: Joseph quotes Peter Waitzrik, who supposedly fought alongside the Red Baron in World War I, as claiming that the Baron shot down a UFO and that space aliens ran out. Even Joseph admits that the story doesn’t match the historical record, but he tries to rehabilitate it anyway, despite the fact that it was first published in the Weekly World News on August 11, 1998 (and later reprinted in 1999). “His appearance in a notorious American tabloid was enough for most historians to dismiss him as the perpetrator of an obvious hoax,” Joseph writes. But he said that Waitzrik only turned to the Weekly World News when no other paper would touch his story. Even though Waitzrik might have been a real person, the story from the Weekly World News is probably, at best, a “creative” interpretation of a very old man’s fantastical tall tales. A recently published book – UFOs of the First World War – delves on the mysteries and paranormal sightings WWI soldiers and even the Red Baron himself encountered during the Great War a hundred years in the past. Nevertheless, Waitzrick waited eighty years after its occurrence before sharing the story, He was already 105 years old when he did open up about the encounter. The account made it into the pages of the Weekly World News August of 1999. But historians are doubtful with Waitzrick’s narration. According to them, it was not until months later after the encounter that the Fokker triplanes that the squadron were allegedly fighting when the incident occurred were put into operation service. That fact cast a shade on the WWI German pilot’s story.


Die Walkure skin for Selbstlader 1906 ( Die Walküre (The Valkyrie), WWV 86B, is the second of the four music dramas that constitute Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen (English: The Ring of the Nibelung). It was performed, as a single opera, at the National Theatre Munich on 26 June 1870, and received its first performance as part of the Ring cycle at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus on 14 August 1876. The story of Die Walküre is based on the Norse mythology told in the Völsunga saga and the Poetic Edda. In this version, the Volsung twins Sieglinde and Siegmund, separated in childhood, meet and fall in love. This union angers the gods, who demand that Siegmund must die. Sieglinde and the couple's unborn child are saved by the defiant actions of Wotan's (reference to the Selbstlader M1916's Odin skin) daughter, the title character, Valkyrie Brünnhilde, who as a result faces the gods' retribution. In accordance with this scheme, Wagner preceded Siegfried's Death (later Götterdämmerung (reference to the LMG 08/18's Götterdämmerung skin, The Twilight of the Gods)) with the story of Siegfried's youth, Young Siegfried, later renamed Siegfried (reference to the Heavy Tank'Siegfried skin). The well-known "Valkyrie" motif, used to introduce Brünnhilde in Act II, forms the basis of the famous Ride of the Valkyries that opens Act III. The "Ride of the Valkyries" (German: Walkürenritt or Ritt der Walküren) refers to the beginning of act 3 of Die Walküre, the second of the four epic music dramas constituting Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen. As a separate piece, the "Ride" is often heard in a purely instrumental version, which may be as short as three minutes. Together with the "Bridal Chorus" from Lohengrin (reference to the LMG 08/18's Lohengrin skin), the "Ride of the Valkyries" is one of Wagner's best-known pieces. The "Ride" features as diegetic music in Apocalypse Now (1979), where the 1/9 Air Cavalry squadron plays it on helicopter-mounted loudspeakers during their assault on a Viet Cong-controlled village as psychological warfare and to motivate their own troops.

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Model 1900 skins
Legendary: Fismes, Fismette, The Smorgon
Distinguished: Devana, Sabaneyev


Devana skin for Model 1900 in WW1 used hunting shotguns in a more or less official capacity, often for sentry duty. In Russia, weapons of virtually all types and manufacture were sold freely in hunting shops before the 1917 Revolution, and most people in rural areas had a rifle or shotgun in their homes. Due to the acute “rifle hunger” in the Russian Army for a large part of the war, one of the recommendations was; “to adapt to the needs of the army all shotguns in Russia must be available for firing buckshot at the Enemy”. Devana (Polish: Dziewanna, Latin: Dzewana), Zevana (Polish: Ziewanna), less often Zievonya (Polish: Ziewonja, Zewonia) is the goddess of wild nature, forests, hunting and the moon worshiped by the Western Slavs. In the sources, she was first mentioned in the 15th century by Jan Długosz, who compared her to the Roman goddess Diana. Dziewanna is also a Polish name for Verbascum, and the etymology of the word is unclear. After strong criticism from Aleksander Brückner, researchers rejected her authenticity, but nowadays it is accepted by an increasing number of researchers. Sometimes, in folk rituals, she performs together with Morana. There are several interpretations of Devana's name. The most obvious etymology are words such as dziewa, dziewka, "girl, young woman, maiden", and dziewica, "virgin", a word derived from the dziewa. This etymology can be supported by fact, that Diana (and Artemis – her greek equivalent) is usually depicted in myths as a virgin and has never had any offspring or a consort.


Sabaneyev skin for Model 1900 ( Leonid Leonidovich Sabaneyev or Sabaneyeff or Sabaneev (Russian: Леони́д Леони́дович Сабане́ев) (1 October 1881 – 3 May 1968) was a Russian musicologist, music critic, composer and scientist. He was the son of Leonid Pavlovich Sabaneyev, a famous hunting expert, and his brother Boris was also a musician. Leonid Pavlovich Sabaneyev (Леонид Павлович Сабанеев; 1844–1898) was a Russian zoologist who made extensive contributions to the study of hunting in Russia. He was on friendly terms with Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich and held the post of Stallmeister (stable master) at his court. Leonid P. Sabaneyev set up Hunter's Gazette (Охотничья газета) in 1888 and was the author of the enormously popular Hunter's Calendar featuring valuable practical information. His work Freshwater Fishes and Fishing in Russia (1875) is considered a minor classic. His correspondence with Charles Darwin, Ivan Turgenev, and Albert I of Monaco has been published. It was Sabaneyev who set up an exclusive hunting club in Moscow and conducted the first national survey of hunting.


The Smorgon skin for Model 1900 ( Smarhonʹ or Smorgonʹ (Belarusian: Смарго́нь; Russian: Сморгонь; Lithuanian: Smurgainys; Polish: Smorgonie; Yiddish: סמאָרגאָן) is a city in the Grodno Region (reference to the Russian 1895's Grodno skin) of Belarus. It was the site of Smarhonʹ air base, now mostly abandoned. Smarhoń is located 107 km from the capital, Minsk. The town of Smorgon has Belarus’ largest memorial to the heroes and victims of the First World War. It was built on the site of real events, becoming the first complex of such scale. The choice of place is symbolic: the town stood on the front line for more than two years - from September 1915 to February 1918. The town, which held ground for 810 days, was practically wiped off the face of the earth. Thousands died in the bloody battles for Smorgon. For example, just on one day of 25 September 1915, 3,500 Russian soldiers and about 5,500 Germans were killed here. After the war, the destroyed and scorched Smorgon began to be called a "dead town" as only about 150 inhabitants out of the pre-war 16,000 returned here. The movie "The Battalion” released in 2015 narrates about the tragic events on the front near Belarus’ Smorgon. It tells about the famous women's Death Battalion under the command of the legendary female officer Maria Bochkareva (reference to the Mosin-Nagant M91's The Bochkareva skin). It consisted of representatives of all walks of life: cadets, teachers, workers and peasants, Cossacks and soldiers, and women from the most noble families of the empire.

Fismes and Fismette skin for Model 1900 ( Fismes is a commune in the Marne department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. Apart from Fismes there are three hamlets: Fismette and Baslieux are continuations of the urban area of Fismes while Villette is in the east of the commune. The Vesle river flows through the commune from east to west with the Ruisseau du Moulin and the Ruisseau Saint-Marie flow from the north into the Vesle. Fismes was greatly affected by the First World War. The Germans invaded the city, then remained on the Chemin des Dames (reference to the Lebel Model 1886's Chemin des Dames skin) before they completely demolished the city in 1918. The Fismes Memorial site is located along the Vesle river, near the memorial bridge that was constructed with the help of the State of Pennsylvania. The Battle of Fismes and Fismette that occurred during World War I sparked a lasting friendship between the City of Fismes and the United States, particularly Pennsylvania. This bloody battle took place from August 3 to September 1, 1918 and was the last major German attack on the Allies during World War I. The 32nd American Division lost 2,000 men during its first attempt to cross the Vesle and attack the Germans. The 28th American Infantry Division, consisting of soldiers mostly from Pennsylvania, replaced the former division, forced the Germans to retreat, and proceeded to liberate Fismes. The Battle of Fismes and Fismette was a battle in Fismes, France that took place during the First World War from 3 August to 1 September 1918 during the end of the Second Battle of the Ourcq and the Aisne-Marne Offensive. The Second Battle of the Marne was the last major German attack on the Western Front during World War I. The purpose of the attack had been to end the conflict, and Erich Ludendorff (reference to the C96 Pistol's Ludendorff skin), Chief Quartermaster General, believed that an attack conducted through Flanders (reference to the Artillery Truck's Flanders skin) would give Germany the final victory that it needed. In order to hide his true intentions, Ludendorff set up a large diversionary attack along the Marne. The Battle of Fismes and Fismette is unique in the history of World War I because of the extreme violence and street fighting that occurred, as well as the presence of storm trooper attacks and flame throwers. All of this culminated in the total destruction of Fismes (around 90%), more than in the neighboring Reims. Over the course of just a month, Fismes would be lost and won again five times by the Allied forces.


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Bull Dog Revolver skins
Legendary: Beachy Bill, The Kid
Distinguished: Bighorn, Gambler


play on words (with "Bill"): Beachy Bill skin, Wild Bill (Gambler skin), Billy the Kid (The Kid skin), Buffalo Bill (Bighorn skin)?


Beachy Bill skin for Bull Dog Revolver ( The ANZACs who found themselves ashore at Gallipoli on April 25 soon realized that they were unable to get beyond the landing beaches due to strong Turkish positions on the ridgeline above, and they were subjected to constant shelling from artillery beyond the protective ridge. Stuck as sitting targets below, they named the hills and natural features around them. There were Gun Ridge, Battleship Hill, Baby 700, the Sphinx (remember they'd trained by the Sphinx) the Nek (an Afrikaans word, probably named by a Boer War veteran), and so on. One of the landing beaches was named Brighton Beach, presumably ironically. One such named location was "the Olive Grove," in a plain near Gaba Tepe, where a well-concealed Turkish artillery position was set up in a place from which it had a clear view of the ANZAC beaches. It could shell the beachhead at will and regularly did so, also dropping shells and shrapnel offshore where the ANZAC troops regularly swam to escape the heat of the Aegean summer. The Olive Grove position first came into action 100 years ago today. It would be a persistent threat to the beachhead right up to withdrawal months later, which took place under its gunnery. The Australian and New Zealand troops not only named the Olive Grove, they named the gun. They called it "Beachy Bill." They never got to meet him up close, but certainly felt his presence. (They speak generally of a single gun, though other guns in the vicinity contributed.) "Beachy" presumably refers to its threat to, and nearness to, the beaches.


Bighorn skin for Bull Dog Revolver ( The British Bull Dog was a popular type of solid-frame pocket revolver introduced by Philip Webley & Son of Birmingham, England, in 1872, and subsequently copied by gunmakers in continental Europe and the United States. The Bulldog was popular in Britain and America. US Army general, George Armstrong Custer, was said to have carried a pair at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. British Bull Dog revolvers were issued to employees of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company until 1895. The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to the Lakota and other Plains Indians as the Battle of the Greasy Grass, and commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle, which resulted in the defeat of U.S. forces, was the most significant action of the Great Sioux War of 1876. It took place on June 25–26, 1876, along the Little Bighorn River in the Crow Indian Reservation in southeastern Montana Territory. The fight was an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho, who were led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Chief Gall, and had been inspired by the visions of Sitting Bull (Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake). The U.S. 7th Cavalry, a force of 700 men, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer (a brevetted major general during the American Civil War), suffered a major defeat. Five of the 7th Cavalry's twelve companies were wiped out and Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew, and a brother-in-law. The total U.S. casualty count included 268 dead and 55 severely wounded (six died later from their wounds), 244  including four Crow Indian scouts and at least two Arikara Indian scouts.


The Kid skin for Bull Dog Revolver ( In addition to the Garfield-Guiteau history, British Bulldogs found their way into the pockets and holsters of other famous characters. Gen. George Custer is rumored to have wielded a matched pair of ivory handled British Bulldog revolvers. A British Bulldog may also have fallen into the hands of William Bonney, aka Billy the Kid, by way of his first employer and mentor, John H. Tunstall. Whether this gun ever saw any dubious service remains for great speculation, but regardless, the little British Bulldogs were as well traveled as they were well loved. Henry McCarty (September 17 or November 23, 1859 – July 14, 1881), alias William H. Bonney, better known as Billy the Kid, was an American outlaw and gunfighter of the Old West who is alleged to have killed 21 men before he was shot and killed at the age of 21. He is also known for his involvement in New Mexico's Lincoln County War, during which he allegedly committed three murders. Bonney's notoriety grew in December 1880 when the Las Vegas Gazette, in Las Vegas, New Mexico, and The Sun, in New York City, carried stories about his crimes. Sheriff Pat Garrett captured Bonney later that month. In April 1881, Bonney was tried for and convicted of Brady's murder, and was sentenced to hang in May of that year. He escaped from jail on April 28, killing two sheriff's deputies in the process, and evaded capture for more than two months. Garrett shot and killed Bonney, by then aged 21, in Fort Sumner on July 14, 1881. During the decades following his death, legends grew that Bonney had survived, and a number of men claimed to be him. Billy the Kid remains one of the most notorious figures from the era, whose life and likeness have been frequently dramatized in Western popular culture. He has been a feature of more than 50 movies and several television series.



Gambler skin for Bull Dog Revolver It has been argued that the British Bull Dog Revolver was the actual Gun That Won The West - a type of solid-frame pocket revolver that was immensely popular in the late 19th century. The Bull Dog is a short-barreled double-action revolver with a short grip and swing-out ejector, intended to be carried in a coat pocket. There is a dark side to these little pistols though. While we can all watch a Western and be thrilled by seeing little revolvers like this come from corsets, garters, crotch holsters, and pockets of lawmen, gamblers, prostitutes and pimps, one of these pistols was involved in a presidential assassination. A .44 caliber Belgian-made British Bulldog revolver was used to murder U.S. President James A. Garfield. James Butler Hickok (May 27, 1837 – August 2, 1876), better known as "Wild Bill" Hickok, was a folk hero of the American Old West known for his life on the frontier as a soldier, scout, lawman, cattle rustler, gunslinger, gambler, showman, and actor, and for his involvement in many famous gunfights. He earned a great deal of notoriety in his own time, much of it bolstered by the many outlandish and often fabricated tales he told about himself. Some contemporaneous reports of his exploits are known to be fictitious, but they remain the basis of much of his fame and reputation. He fought and spied for the Union Army during the American Civil War and gained publicity after the war as a scout, marksman, actor, and professional gambler. He was involved in several notable shootouts during the course of his life. In 1876, Hickok was shot and killed while playing poker in a saloon in Deadwood, Dakota Territory (present-day South Dakota) by Jack McCall, an unsuccessful gambler. The hand of cards which he supposedly held at the time of his death has become known as the dead man's hand: two pairs; black aces and eights. Clyde Blackburn is an American character featured in the campaign of Battlefield 1. "My name is Clyde Blackburn. I'm a pilot and a gambler. If you ask me to name my biggest fault, I'd have to tell you I'm just not a very honest person." — Blackburn describing himself at the beginning of Friends In High Places.


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lMG 08/18 skins
Legendary: Der Sturm, Die Zauberflöte, Franz Marc
Distinguished: Götterdämmerung, Lohengrin
Special: Danzig Trench, Hohenzollern, Kaisers Ridge, Würdigung


Franz Marc skin for lMG 08/18 ( Franz Moritz Wilhelm Marc (8 February 1880 – 4 March 1916) was a German painter and printmaker, one of the key figures of German Expressionism. He was a founding member of Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), a journal whose name later became synonymous with the circle of artists collaborating in it.
His mature works mostly are animals, and are known for bright colors. He was drafted to serve in the German Army at the beginning of World War I, and died two years later at the Battle of Verdun (reference to the M1909 Benét-Mercié's Verdun skin). When up for auction, his major paintings attract large sums, with a record of £42,654,500 for Die Füchse (The Foxes). With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Marc was drafted into the Imperial German Army as a cavalryman. By February 1916, as shown in a letter to his wife, he had gravitated to military camouflage. His technique for hiding artillery from aerial observation was to paint canvas covers in broadly pointillist style. He took pleasure in creating a series of nine such tarpaulin covers in styles varying "from Manet to Kandinsky", suspecting that the latter could be the most effective against aircraft flying at 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) or higher. By 1916, he had been promoted to lieutenant and awarded the Iron Cross. After mobilization of the German Army, the government identified notable artists to be withdrawn from combat for their own safety. Marc was on the list but was struck in the head and killed instantly by a shell splinter during the Battle of Verdun in 1916 before orders for reassignment could reach him.

Der Sturm skin for lMG 08/18 ( Der Sturm (transl. The Storm) was a German avant-garde art and literary magazine founded by Herwarth Walden, covering Expressionism, Cubism, Dada and Surrealism, among other artistic movements. It was published between 1910 and 1932. Der Sturm was established in Berlin in 1910 by Herwarth Walden. It ran weekly from 1910 to 1914, monthly from 1914 to 1924, and quarterly until it ceased publication in 1932. From 1916 to 1928, it was edited by the artist and Bauhaus teacher Lothar Schreyer. The best known publications resulting from the magazine were the Sturmbücher (storm-books), (e.g. Sturmbücher 1 and 2 were works of August Stramm (reference to the M1917 Trench Carbine's Stramm skin) – Sancta Susanna und Rudimentär). Postcards were also created featuring the expressionistic, cubist, and abstract art of Franz Marc (reference to the lMG 08/18's Franz Marc skin), Wassily Kandinsky, Oskar Kokoschka, August Macke, Gabriele Münter, Georg Schrimpf, Maria Uhden, Rudolf Bauer and others. The term Sturm was branded by Walden to represent the way in which modern art was penetrating Germany at the time. Particularly in the time before outbreak of the World War I, Der Sturm played a crucial role in the French-German exchange of expressionist artists, which led to a special relationship between Berlin and Paris. Regularly, poems and other texts of French and/or French-speaking expressionists were published (Guillaume Apollinaire (reference to the RSC SMG's Apollinaire skin), Blaise Cendrars, etc.). This relationship was renewed after the war despite the hostilities between the two countries caused by the fighting. The magazine also fostered the Galerie Der Sturm, started by Walden to celebrate its 100th edition, in 1912. The gallery became the focus for Berlin's modern art scene for a decade. Starting with an exhibition of Fauves and Der Blaue Reiter, followed by the introduction in Germany of the Italian Futurists, Cubists and Orphists, the gallery was to exhibit Edvard Munch, Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Gino Severini, Jean Arp, Paul Klee (reference to the Parabellum MG14/17's Paul Klee skin), Wassily Kandinsky, Serge Charchoune and Kurt Schwitters.


Danzig Trench skin for lMG 08/18 ( The Capture of Mametz (reference to the M1917 Enfield's Mametz skin) took place on 1 July 1916, when the British Fourth Army attacked the German 2nd Army on the Western Front, during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (reference to the Auto Revolver's Somme skin). Mametz is a village on the D 64 road, about 20 mi (32 km) north-east of Amiens and 4 mi (6.4 km) east of Albert. Mametz Wood is 1,000 yd (910 m) to the north-west and before 1914, the village was the fifth largest in the area, with about 120 houses and had a station on the line from Albert to Péronne. Battle, 1 July: The left-hand battalion of the 91st Brigade had already worked forward into the east end of Mametz and the reinforcements were formed into four lines, to advance after a thirty-minute bombardment at 3:30 p.m. but before they reached Shrine Alley, about 200 German soldiers appearing from The Shrine and the village surrendered, a larger number having earlier retreated towards Mametz Wood. Danzig Trench (South) was cleared and Hidden Wood occupied, with far fewer losses than in the first attack by the 20th Brigade during the morning. Nivelle Nights is a map added to Battlefield 1: They Shall Not Pass during the June Update. Conquest flags: -Saint Berthe (reference to the RSC SMG's Saint Berthe skin), -Danzig Trench, ... . Danzig Trench: A German position marked by a trio of searchlights scanning for aircraft, the objective is a bunker housing generators and banks of electrical equipment, protected by the elements by a log roof. The capture zone is concentrated around the central pit where the generators are, but also extends northwards to include the central parapet housing the spotlights, and the reverse slope at the bottom of which is the frontline trench. The German Illumination Flare launcher is along the trenches to the east, outside the middle of the three pillboxes constructed about the area.


Kaisers Ridge skin for lMG 08/18 ( The Argonne Forest is a multiplayer map featured in Battlefield 1. This infantry-focused map takes place during the opening phase of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive of late 1918. Conquest flags: -Hellfire Junction Bridge (reference to the M1917 Enfield's Hellfire Junction skin), -Kaisers Ridge, ... . Kaiser's Ridge: Kaiser's Ridge is a fortified position situated on a low hill, recently shelled due to the presence of flaming debris and uprooted trees. A line of trenches covers the south slope, with another, wider line on the lip of the ridge on which the capture zone is concentrated. Two pillboxes at either end of this line are constructed defend the southwest and northeast approaches. The other side of the ridge lacks any fortifications, falling into a crevice that loops around the crag between the ridge and the Abbey Ruin. A tunnel through the rock face grants a more direct route. An FK 96 is set up to the southwest of the flag, right next to the railway line.


Hohenzollern skin for lMG 08/18 ( The House of Hohenzollern (German: Haus Hohenzollern; Romanian: Casa de Hohenzollern) is a formerly royal German (and from 1871 to 1918, imperial) dynasty whose members were variously princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania. The family came from the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the late 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle. The Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were ruled in personal union after 1618 and were called Brandenburg-Prussia. From there, the Kingdom of Prussia was created in 1701, eventually leading to the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871, with the Hohenzollerns as hereditary German Emperors and Kings of Prussia. Germany's defeat in World War I in 1918 led to the German Revolution. The Hohenzollerns were overthrown and the Weimar Republic was established, thus bringing an end to the German and Prussian monarchy. As a result of the World War I, the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires ceased to exist. In 1918, the German empire was abolished and replaced by the Weimar Republic. After the outbreak of the German revolution in 1918, both Emperor William II (reference to Gewehr 98's The Kaiser skin) and Crown Prince William (reference to the Selbstlader M1916's Kronprinz skin) signed the document of abdication. The Hohenzollern Redoubt (Hohenzollernwerk) was a strongpoint of the German 6th Army on the Western Front during the First World War, at Auchy-les-Mines near Loos-en-Gohelle in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France. Named after the House of Hohenzollern, the redoubt was fought for by German and British forces. Engagements took place from the Battle of Loos (25 September – 14 October 1915) to the beginning of the Battle of the Somme on 1 July 1916, including the action of the Hohenzollern Redoubt in 1915 and the British Attack at the Hohenzollern Redoubt from 2 to 18 March 1916.


Die Zauberflöte skin for lMG 08/18 ( The Magic Flute (German: Die Zauberflöte), K. 620, is an opera in two acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. The work is in the form of a Singspiel, a popular form during the time it was written that included both singing and spoken dialogue. The work premiered on 30 September 1791 at Schikaneder's theatre, the Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden in Vienna, just two months before the composer's premature death. The allegorical plot was influenced by Schikaneder and Mozart's interest in Freemasonry and concerns the initiation of Prince Tamino. Enlisted by the Queen of the Night to rescue her daughter Pamina from the high priest Sarastro, Tamino comes to admire the high ideals of the latter and he and Pamina both join Sarastro's community, while the Queen and her allies are vanquished. The Magic Flute is a 2006 romantic fantasy film directed by Kenneth Branagh, adapted from Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's singspiel Die Zauberflöte. An international co-production between France and the United Kingdom, it was produced by Idéale Audience and in association with UK's Peter Moores Foundation. As part of the 250th anniversary celebration of Mozart's birthday, a new film version of The Magic Flute, set during World War I, was made, directed by Kenneth Branagh, with a translation by Stephen Fry. The story, which has been updated to a World War I setting, follows the structure of the original opera libretto. Tamino is sent by the Queen of the Night to rescue her daughter Pamina after Sarastro has apparently kidnapped her. His sidekick is Papageno, a man who uses underground pigeons to check for poison gas. Sarastro, in charge of a field hospital, is Pamina's father.


Götterdämmerung skin for lMG 08/18 ( Götterdämmerung (Twilight of the Gods), WWV 86D, is the last in Richard Wagner's cycle of four music dramas titled Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung, or The Ring Cycle or The Ring for short). It received its premiere at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus on 17 August 1876, as part of the first complete performance of the whole work. The title is a translation into German of the Old Norse phrase Ragnarök, which in Norse mythology refers to a prophesied war among various beings and gods that ultimately results in the burning, immersion in water, and renewal of the world. As with the rest of the Ring, however, Wagner's account diverges significantly from these Old Norse sources. The historian John Roberts suggested that the killing of Siegfried (reference to the Heavy Tank's Siegfried skin) by Hagen with a stab in the back gave inspiration for the myth that the German Army did not lose World War I, but was instead defeated by a treasonous "stab in the back" from civilians, in particular Jews and Socialists. The stab-in-the-back myth (German: Dolchstoßlegende, lit. 'dagger-stab legend') was an antisemitic conspiracy theory that was widely believed and promulgated in Germany after 1918. It maintained that the Imperial German Army did not lose World War I on the battlefield, but was instead betrayed by certain citizens on the home front—especially Jews, revolutionary socialists who fomented strikes and labor unrest, and other republican politicians who had overthrown the House of Hohenzollern (reference to the lMG 08/18's Hohenzollern skin) in the German Revolution of 1918–1919. Advocates of the myth denounced the German government leaders who had signed the Armistice of 11 November 1918 as the "November criminals" (November­verbrecher). Historians inside and outside of Germany unanimously reject the myth, pointing out that the Imperial German Army was out of reserves, was being overwhelmed by the entrance of the United States into the war, and had already lost the war militarily by late 1918. Wagnerian allusions: To some Germans, the idea of a "stab in the back" was evocative of Richard Wagner's 1876 opera Götterdämmerung, in which Hagen murders his enemy Siegfried – the hero of the story – with a spear in his back. In Hindenburg's memoirs, he compared the collapse of the German army to Siegfried's death.


Lohengrin skin for lMG 08/18 Lohengrin, WWV 75, is a Romantic opera in three acts composed and written by Richard Wagner, first performed in 1850. The story of the eponymous character is taken from medieval German romance, notably the Parzival of Wolfram von Eschenbach, and its sequel Lohengrin, itself inspired by the epic of Garin le Loherain. It is part of the Knight of the Swan legend. The opera has inspired other works of art. King Ludwig II of Bavaria named his castle Neuschwanstein Castle after the Swan Knight. It was King Ludwig's patronage that later gave Wagner the means and opportunity to complete, build a theatre for, and stage his epic cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen. He had discontinued composing it at the end of Act II of Siegfried (reference to the Heavy Tank's Siegfried skin), the third of the Ring tetralogy, to create his radical chromatic masterpiece of the late 1850s, Tristan und Isolde, and his lyrical comic opera of the mid-1860s, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. The most popular and recognizable part of the opera is the Bridal Chorus, colloquially known in English-speaking countries as "Here Comes the Bride," usually played as a processional at weddings. Placido Domingo’s initial year as General Director of Los Angeles Opera began shortly after the terrible events of September 11, 2001, with a new production of Lohengrin. That production was scrapped this season for a new one directed by Lydia Steier, with scenery and costumes by Dirk Hofacker. In Steier’s vision, the action took place in an era reminiscent of World War I, in the ruined shell of a building vaguely governmental or cathedral-like. On a turntable, the set revolved sometimes to place action just outside the over-sized doors to the ruin. Steir has a background in choreography, which was evident in the stylized movement of the Brabant populace — the men either shell-shocked (reference to the M1917 Enfield's Shellshock skin) or brutes in uniform, and the women nurses or easy prey for the sexual aggression of the soldiers. In the opening scene, shadow-lit behind a tent, a doctor amputates a leg and seemingly loses the patient — while a nurse brings out the severed appendage for disposal, another nurse inside the tent places a blanket over the body. After Friedrich of Telramund makes his accusation of fratricide against Elsa, it is from this tent that Lohengrin emerges — in soldier’s uniform, with silver-plating from the knee down on one leg.


Würdigung skin for lMG 08/18: Was is das oder triple question mark ??? Auszeichnung (Ehrung): Unter einer Auszeichnung, oft auch Preis, wird eine Ehrung oder Würdigung verstanden, die eine Person, Gruppe, Organisation oder ein Unternehmen für herausragende Leistungen in einem bestimmten Bereich erhält. Viele Auszeichnungen honorieren die Bereiche Sport, Kunst, Kultur, Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft oder bürgerschaftliches Engagement. Die Auszeichnungen umfassen Preise (engl. Awards) aller Art, Ehrenzeichen und Orden, Titel oder andere Würdigungen.


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Re: Interesting History Behind BF1 Weapon Skin Names?

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C96 Skins
Legendary: The Box Cannon, Teutonic Fury
Distinguished: Churchill, Ludendorff
Other: His Lordship


The Box Cannon skin for C96 ( The Mauser C96 (Construktion 96) is a semi-automatic pistol that was originally produced by German arms manufacturer Mauser from 1896 to 1937. Unlicensed copies of the gun were also manufactured in Spain and China in the first half of the 20th century. The grip earned the gun the nickname "broomhandle" in the English-speaking world, and in China the C96 was nicknamed the "box cannon" (Chinese: 盒子炮; pinyin: hézipào) because of its rectangular internal magazine and because it could be holstered in its wooden box-like detachable stock. During the Warlord Era in China, European embargoes on exporting rifles to Chinese warlords meant that the C96 became a mainstay of the period's armies, and the basic form of the pistol was extensively copied. Chinese communist general, Zhu De, carried a Mauser C96 during his Nanchang Uprising and later conflicts; his gun (with his name printed on it) is in the Beijing war museum. The most common and popular pistol in China since the beginning of the Republic in 1909, was the Mauser C96, called the "Box Cannon" (盒子炮) in Chinese. It was imported from Germany and Spain (Astra 900 and MM31), but mostly produced locally in various arsenals, the larger being in Hanyang (reference to the General Liu's Hanyang Arsenal skin), Shanghai, Gongxian, Shanxi. They were often used with a detachable shoulder stock. Hanyang alone produced around 13,000 copies.


Churchill skin for C96 With its impressive performance and the option of an attachable shoulder stock, the C96 quickly became popular on the civilian market. It was initially offered to the German Army which was not interested, but by the late 19th century the C96 had already been adopted by the Italian Navy, and the Russian and Turkish Armies. It first saw military action in the Second Boer War of 1899 to 1902, where a young Winston Churchhill carried a C96, and claimed it saved his life. Winston Churchill was fond of the Mauser C96 and used one at the 1898 Battle of Omdurman and during the Second Boer War; Lawrence of Arabia carried a Mauser C96 for a period, during his time in the Middle East. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman, soldier, and writer who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom twice, from 1940 to 1945 during the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to the wealthy Spencer aristocratic family. He joined the British Army in 1895 and saw action in British India, the Anglo-Sudan War, and the Second Boer War, later gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. As First Lord of the Admiralty during the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign but, after it proved a disaster, he was demoted to Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He resigned in November 1915 and joined the Royal Scots Fusiliers on the Western Front for six months. In 1917, he returned to government under David Lloyd George and served successively as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, and Secretary of State for the Colonies, overseeing the Anglo-Irish Treaty and British foreign policy in the Middle East. Although he has been criticised for some wartime events and for his imperialist views, Churchill is generally seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending liberal democracy against the spread of fascism. Historians often rank Churchill as the greatest prime minister in British history.


Ludendorff skin for C96 ( Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, politician and military theorist. He achieved fame during World War I for his central role in the German victories at Liège (reference to the Gewehr 98's Liege skin) and Tannenberg (reference to the Madsen MG's Tannenberg skin) in 1914. Following his appointment as First Quartermaster-general (German: Erster Generalquartiermeister) of the Imperial Army's Great General Staff in 1916, he became the chief policymaker in a de facto military dictatorship that dominated Germany for the rest of the war. By 1904, he had rapidly risen in rank to become a member of the Army's Great General Staff, where he oversaw the development of the Schlieffen Plan (reference to the Gewehr 98's von Schlieffen skin). Despite being temporarily removed from the Great General Staff for meddling in German politics, Ludendorff restored his standing in the army through his success as a commander in World War I. On 16 August 1914, he led the successful German assault on Liège, a feat for which he earned the Pour le Mérite. Upon being transferred to the Eastern Front under the command of General Paul von Hindenburg, Ludendorff was instrumental in inflicting a series of crushing defeats against the Russians, including at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes. By 29 August 1916, he had successfully lobbied for Hindenburg's appointment as Supreme Commander of the German Army as well as his own promotion to Quartermaster General of the army high command. Once he and Hindenburg had established what some authors describe as a de facto military dictatorship, Ludendorff directed Germany's entire military strategy and war effort until the end of the conflict. In this capacity, he secured Russia's defeat in the east and launched a new wave of offensives on the Western Front resulting in advances not seen since the war's outbreak. However, by the end of 1918, all improvements in Germany's fortunes were reversed after its forces' decisive defeat in the Second Battle of the Marne (reference to he Model 10's The Rock of the Marne skin) and the Allies' Hundred Days Offensive. Faced with the war effort's collapse and a growing popular revolution, the German Emperor, Wilhelm II (reference to the Gewehr 98's The Kaiser skin), forced Ludendorff to resign.


Teutonic Fury skin for C96 ( Furor Teutonicus ("Teutonic Fury") is a Latin phrase referring to the proverbial ferocity of the Teutons, or more generally, of the Germanic tribes of the Roman Empire period. Generally, the original expression is attributed to the Roman poet Lucan (d. AD 65). It occurs for the first time in his work, Bellum civile/Pharsalia. Lucan used the term to describe what he believed to be the outstanding characteristic of the Celtic/Germanic called the Teutones: a mad, merciless, berserk rage in battle. United States Marine Corps in the First World War: Anthology, Selected Bibliography, and Annotated Order of Battle by Annette D Amerman (1917). THE BATTLES OF BELLEAU WOODS (reference to the M1903's Belleau Wood skin): PART II by Lieutenant Colonel Ernst Otto, German Army (Ret). The question here might suggest itself: how can it be explained that the Germans, after fighting off with unheard of bravery continuous American attacks for seven days, should have been overwhelmed in hand-to-hand fighting in the comparatively short time of two days, as soon as the Americans had forced their way into the forest? The question is the more pertinent and the success of the Americans the more creditable because it had been common knowledge that it was precisely in hand-to-hand fighting that the German was an exceptionally redoubtable foe. It had been repeatedly demonstrated during the long course of the World War that, due to the Furor Teutonicus* once dreaded by the Romans, the Germans were so superior to the French and the Russians in this form of combat—and what is more important, felt themselves so superior— that it was only when the French and Russians outnumbered them that they dared meet the Germans at close quarters. * Latin for Teutonic Fury and refers to the ferocity of the Germanic tribes during the Roman Empire.


His Lordship skin for C96: tripple question mark (???) To unlock C96 – His Lordship skin, you need to complete Through Mud and Blood campaign mission and its Field Manuals and its Codex Entries. The Mark I was a development of Little Willie, the experimental tank built for the Landship Committee by Lieutenant Walter Wilson of the Royal Naval Air Service (reference to the Farquhar-Hill's RNAS skin) and William Tritton of William Foster Co., between July and September 1915. The prototype Mark I, ready in December 1915, was called "Mother" (also known at various times as "The Wilson Machine", "Big Willie", and officially "His Majesty's Land Ship Centipede"). The Landship Committee was a small British committee formed during the First World War to develop armoured fighting vehicles for use on the Western Front. The eventual outcome was the creation of what is now called the tank. Established in February 1915 by First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill (reference to the C96's Churchill skin), the Committee was composed mainly of naval officers, politicians and engineers.

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